How does the Temperature Affect Lithium Batteries?

Q:  What is the ideal temperature for lithium batteries (Lifepo4) to get best experience? 

A:   It is 25℃(77°F).  

      The charge temperature range is from 0℃ to 55℃ (32°F ~ 131°F), Discharge temperature range is from -20℃ to 55℃ (-4°F ~ 131°F).

It is well known that lithium batteries are superior to other batteries in many respects. Lithium batteries are not easy to burn and difficult to explode when get crashed from outside. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are lighter, smaller than the same capacity lead-acid batteries. It makes them more convenient to carry, and the lithium batteries have no risk of leakage.Besides, lithium batteries can be recycled more than 3000 times, while lead-acid batteries are only 400-600 times.While what should we pay attention to when we are using lithium batteries? Among all factors, temperature has the greatest impact on lithium batteries. Now let's briefly introduce how temperature affects the battery, and corresponding suggestions.

Overview of Temperature Effects

The reaction rate of the positive and negative materials of the battery will decrease if the temperature drops.If the battery voltage is stable, the battery output will decrease with the decreased discharge current.However, batteries' output will increase when the temperature rises. The high temperature will affect the transmission speed of the electrolyte.As the transmission temperature rises, the transmission speed will slow down, and the charging and discharging function of the battery will also be affected.And high temperature will break the chemical balance of the battery and cause side reactions.

Therefore many manufacturers have designed a BMS (Battery Management System) to act as the central "brain" for battery operation to protect the battery. If the temperature reaches 55℃(131°F), the BMS will automatically shut down the battery.

Suggestions for high temperature use

1)Please choose a battery with BMS over-temperature protection. It can cut off battery discharge in time if the high temperature occurs. And put the battery in a cool place to avoid direct sunlight and make sure there is no flammable materials around.

Suggestions for low temperature use

1) Please choose a battery with BMS low-temperature protection.It can cut off battery discharge in time if the high temperature occurs At the same time, it means that the batteries can't be used below 0℃( 32°F). 

2) Please choose a battery with low temperature protection cut-off and self-heating function.But it may be expensive. 

3) Keep the battery in warm environment. You can use the battery box, battery blanket and battery heater for this. And they can stop the freezing air outside and maintain the heat generated by the batteries to keep battery warm in cold weather.

Warnings and Tips

1) Do not charge the battery below 0°C (32°F) and discharge the battery below -20°C (-4°F) which will short the battery life. 

2) Do not use the battery when the temperature over 55°C (131°F) . 

3) Please charge battery regularly if you do not use it for a long time (over 6 months). It is recommended to charge the battery once every 2 months and charge 1 hour for each time. 

4) Please storage the battery in 5°C~40°C (39.5°F~104°F), lower than the 90% humidity environment. And it is better to keep battery in a clean, dry, ventilated environment at 20°C ~ 30°C (68°F~86°F).

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